The current spread of antibiotic resistance poses a dramatic threat to global health. We are thus in urgent need of novel treatment strategies. As the evolutionary potential of pathogens is part of the problem, sustainable strategies should take account of the selection dynamics underlying the emergence and rise in resistance. However, most public health measures do not yet address pathogen evolution. The aim of the symposium and workshop is therefore to strengthen the exchange between fundamental research in evolutionary biology on antibiotic resistance and medical practice. How can medical challenges be approached by evolutionary biologists in a sensible way? And how can insights from evolutionary biology be implemented in practice? The workshop will therefore bring together physicians with expertise in antibiotic therapy, experimental evolutionary biologists, and modelers. The first part consists of a symposium with open registration (available spots limited to 20). In the second part, invited participants will form discussion groups to develop novel ideas concerning the above questions.